http://karen-keogh.co.uk/portfolio/pyrenean-journey TRIPS has imposed the dominant system of intellectual property on the world in the United States and Europe, as humans are today. I believe that the development of the IP system is not good for the United States and the EU; but I believe even more that it is not in the interest of developing countries. Unlike other IP agreements, TRIPS have an effective enforcement mechanism. States can be disciplined by the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. Basic introduction to the DG Intellectual Property Agreement (TRIPS) From the WTO agreement, a written introduction to the WTO for non-specialists. With the TRIPS agreement, intellectual property rights have been integrated into the multilateral trading system for the first time and remains the most comprehensive multilateral IP agreement to date. In 2001, developing countries, fearing that developed countries had insisted on too narrow a reading of the TRIPS trip, launched a series of discussions that culminated in the Doha Declaration. The Doha Declaration is a WTO DECLARATION that clarifies the scope of the TRIPS agreement, which states, for example, that TRIPS can and should be interpreted in light of the objective of “promoting access to medicines for all”. The 2002 Doha Declaration confirmed that the TRIPS agreement should not prevent members from taking the necessary steps to protect public health. Despite this recognition, less developed countries have argued that flexible TRIPS provisions, such as mandatory licensing, are almost impossible to obtain.
The least developed countries, in particular, have made their young domestic manufacturing and technological industries proof of the infallible policy. Daniele Archibugi and Andrea Filippetti argue that the importance of TRIPS in the process of developing and disseminating knowledge and innovation has been overestimated by its supporters. This was supported by the FINDINGs of the United Nations that many low-protection countries regularly benefit from significant foreign direct investment (FDI).  Analysis of OECD countries in the 1980s and 1990s (which extended the lifespan of drug patents by 6 years) showed that, although the total number of registered products increased slightly, the average innovation index remained unchanged.  On the other hand, J-rg Baten, Nicola Bianchi and Petra Moser (2017) find historical evidence that compulsory licensing – a key mechanism for weakening IP rights under Article 31 of TRIPS – can effectively lead to the promotion of inventions by increasing the threat to competition in areas of low competition. They argue, however, that the benefits of weakening intellectual property rights depend heavily on the ability of governments to make a credible commitment to use them only in exceptional cases, since companies can invest less in research and development if they expect repeated episodes of mandatory licensing. An agreement reached in 2003 relaxed domestic market requirements and allows developing countries to export to other countries with a public health problem as long as exported drugs are not part of a trade or industrial policy.  Drugs exported under such regulations may be packaged or coloured differently to prevent them from affecting the markets of industrialized countries. After the Uruguay Round, THE GATT became the basis for the creation of the World Trade Organization. Since ratification of TRIPS is a precondition for membership of the World Trade Organization, any country seeking difficult access to the World Trade Organization`s many international markets must adopt the strict intellectual property laws imposed by TRIPS. This is why TRIPS is the main multilateral instrument for the globalization of intellectual property laws.
Countries such as Russia and China, which were very unlikely to see the Berne Convention, felt the prospect of accession